What are the differences between nicotinamide riboside and nicotinamide mononucleotide

Update:2023-07-16   

Introduction

As we age, maintaining optimal levels of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) becomes increasingly important. Nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) have gained attention for their potential to boost NAD+ levels and support healthy aging. In this article, we will explore the differences between NR and NMN, their mechanisms of action, safety profiles, bioavailability, and their significance in promoting optimal cellular function and longevity.

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What is Nicotinamide Riboside (NR)?

Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a derivative of NR chloride that acts as an NAD+ precursor. It increases NAD+ levels and activates SIRT1 and SIRT3, enzymes involved in longevity and metabolic regulation. NR enhances oxidative metabolism, improves mitochondrial function, and counteracts diet-related metabolic comorbidities.


What is Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN)?

Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) is a B3 vitamin and serves as an immediate precursor of NAD+. It helps maintain cellular NAD+ levels and supports NAD+-dependent cellular activities, including mitochondrial metabolism, sirtuin regulation, and PARP activity. Animal studies have shown that NMN supplementation can improve the outcomes of various age-related diseases.


How NMN and NR Become NAD+ in Cells

While both NMN and NR increase NAD+ levels, there are differences in their mechanisms of action. NR is first converted to NMN, which is then further converted to NAD+. NMN, on the other hand, can be made from both NR and nicotinamide.


Differences Between NMN and NR

NMN is a direct precursor of NAD+, while NR serves as a precursor for NMN, which is then converted to NAD+.

NR has been more extensively studied in clinical trials compared to NMN, with encouraging results.

Both NMN and NR have demonstrated safety and are well-tolerated by individuals.


Safety and Bioavailability

Studies indicate that both NMN and NR are safe for consumption, with minimal side effects reported.

NMN and NR can increase NAD+ levels in various tissues, supporting their bioavailability.

Bioavailability studies have primarily focused on NR in human subjects, while NMN studies have been conducted on rodents.


Clinical Trials

NR has undergone several clinical trials, including randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs), providing promising evidence for its safety and efficacy.

NMN clinical trials are currently ongoing, with results yet to be published. Further research will shed light on the effectiveness of NMN as a supplement for healthy aging.


Stability and Storage

NR has demonstrated stability for up to six hours at room temperature and up to seven days at refrigerated temperatures. Storing NR in a cold and stabilized form is recommended to prevent degradation.

Similar advice applies to NMN, as stabilizing the compound under suitable storage conditions ensures its efficacy.


Importance of NR and NMN for Healthy Aging

NR and NMN are both essential for maintaining optimal NAD+ levels, as NAD+ plays a crucial role in various physiological processes such as energy metabolism, DNA repair, and immune activation.

Cellular NAD+ production decreases with age, and depletion has been associated with the onset and progression of age-related conditions.

NR and NMN have shown potential in enhancing cellular function and combatting age-related conditions, making them valuable supplements for promoting healthy aging.


Conclusion

Nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) offer promising avenues for sustaining optimal NAD+ levels and supporting healthy aging. While NR has been more extensively studied, ongoing research on NMN will provide valuable insights into its efficacy. Both compounds demonstrate safety, enhance NAD+ bioavailability, and play pivotal roles in promoting cellular health and longevity. As more studies emerge, individuals seeking to maximize their NAD+ levels may consider NR and NMN supplements as part of a comprehensive approach to healthy aging.

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Reference:

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[7] NAD(+) Intermediates: The Biology and Therapeutic Potential of NMN and NR. Yoshino J, Baur JA, Imai SI.

[8] Reversal of endothelial dysfunction by nicotinamide mononucleotide via extracellular conversion to nicotinamide riboside. Mateuszuk Ł, Campagna R, Kutryb-Zając B, Kuś K, Słominska EM, Smolenski RT, Chlopicki S.

[9] NRK1 controls nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside metabolism in mammalian cells. Ratajczak J, Joffraud M, Trammell SA, Ras R, Canela N, Boutant M, Kulkarni SS, Rodrigues M, Redpath P, Migaud ME, Auwerx J, Yanes O, Brenner C, Cantó C.